Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer and more likely to grow and metastasize. It has a high response rate to checkpoint inhibitor therapy compared to other cancers; however, about 60% of patients treated do not respond well or relapse. Immune checkpoints are proteins expressed on T cells and function to ensure self-tolerance, but they are also used by tumor cells to limit anti-tumor immune function.
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic response characterized by the development of hives, swelling, and dramatic drops in blood pressure. It is estimated that 1,500 people in the United States die yearly from anaphylaxis. A plethora of substances can elicit allergic reactions, and the exact allergen is often unknown. What is known is that an allergen binds to IgE found on mast cells, and this leads to the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, the substances responsible for the allergic response. Mast cells are found in tissue, yet can respond to allergens in the blood via a mechanism that is not well understood.
After suffering from a heart attack, patients may eventually have a treatment option which uses their own stem cells to repair and restore heart muscle tissue.
According to the Centers for Disease control, over 600,000 people in the U.S. die yearly from heart disease, and 735,000 Americans have a heart attack each year. Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is blocked leading to damage to the heart muscle tissue. The heart tries to heal after an infarction, but this involves the formation of scar tissue that does not restore adequate function to the heart. The advancement of regenerative medicine using adult stem cells for cardiac tissue repair has the potential to provide a means to repair heart tissue in a way that returns full heart muscle cell function.
Stem-cells and MS are widely discussed, but we might be finally getting closer to stem-cell treatments for MS patients.
Stem cell therapies are investigated for their potential to provide long-lasting or permanent remission of multiple sclerosis (MS) signs and symptoms. Many patients are well-informed of the potential of stem cell therapy for MS, and many seek treatments abroad that are promoted to give positive or curative outcomes. There are also clinics in the US that provide treatments that are outside of FDA-approved uses. The only FDA-approved, stem-cell based products used in the US consist of CD34+ stem cells derived from cord blood.
Systemic sclerosis, also called scleroderma, progressive systemic sclerosis, or CREST syndrome, is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disease with fibrosis and vasculopathy. Patients often have sclerotic, thickened skin, but some experience significant organ damage. Immunosuppressive therapy is a common approach to patients with systemic sclerosis, but there is a subset of patients that do not respond well to treatment.