Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma is a common, but aggressive liver cancer with a low survival rate. Given the immunogenicity of HBV and tumor cells, immunotherapies based on T-cell cytotoxicity may be viable treatment approaches to hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies were conducted to characterize the cytotoxic T-cell (CD4+ and CD8+) responses involved in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Many people have at some point thought of, or actually donated their blood for medical use by those most in need. Most people are familiar with the use of donated blood in emergency situations to replace trauma-related blood loss. However, donated blood has many uses including for medical research and planned therapies. Research using donated blood supports crucial development of immunotherapies for different types of cancer, auto-immune diseases, rare diseases and conditions, and more.
Preterm labor is a major cause of and infant mortality and long-term medical complications in offspring. Premature activation of the maternal immune system may stimulate cervical dilatation and activation of the uterine smooth muscle, leading to preterm delivery. Normal labor involves an increase in the expression of uterine-derived pro-inﬂammatory cytokines and chemokines that activate maternal peripheral leukocytes. Leukocytes then increase within the uterus and stimulate the cervical and uterine conditions that lead to delivery of the baby. Better characterization of these biochemical and cellular events may provide information that can be used to screen or predict the risk of preterm labor.
Patients with obesity who undergo knee or hip arthroplasty (joint replacement surgery) are at an increased risk for post-operative complications, including problems with wound healing. Those who are obese tend to have higher cytokine levels (cell signaling molecules) indicating the existence low-grade inflammation in this population. To understand the connection between obesity and immune status as it relates to post-operative wound healing, scientists conducted research to determine the status of immune cells and cytokines in those undergoing arthroplasty.
Influenza A is responsible for flu epidemics worldwide. This virus changes constantly making effective vaccine design very challenging. Currently, vaccines must be redesigned to account for the changes in the virus strains. However, there are influenza viral peptides that are conserved across different strains. These peptides may serve as the basis for the development of vaccines effective against different strains.