The HIV-1 virus produces various proteins needed for infection and replication in human cells. Some of these are accessory proteins that mainly help the HIV-1 virus to evade the immune system defenses and to overcome factors that function to restrict or inhibit infection. One protein that may function in this way is the Vpr protein, which is a virion (infective virus form)-associated protein.
Antibody-based drugs are developed as an immunotherapeutic approach to treat different types of cancer. An important step in the antibody drug–development process is the use of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays due to this mechanism of action for most antibody drugs. These assays require the use of effector cells, and those used most often are natural killer (NK) cells obtained from human donors and engineered cells (NK-92 and Jurkate T cells).
Research into the prevention or amelioration of graft-versus-host disease is a priority in the transplantation arena. The use of mouse models help in understanding the mechanisms and efficacy of proposed approaches to this issue. For example, the application of regulatory T cells is one area of investigation using mouse models treated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, the current mouse models limit the interpretation for its potential use in humans because the immune reactions observed are only to the mouse cells.
Hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells, which express CD34 antigen, are widely used clinically in the treatment of a number of conditions and diseases such as vascular disease, spinal cord injury, multiple myeloma, and more. However, emerging research data indicates that CD34 stems cells are not exclusively hematopoietic. CD34 antigen is expressed on a number of other cell types including keratocytes, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, and interstitial dendritic cells, among others.
Allergic rhinitis is a common allergy also known as hay fever. Allergic rhinitis affects billions of people globally. Pollen from weeds, grass, and other plants are the main triggers of allergic rhinitis. The effects on the person with this type of allergy are due to inflammation including sneezing, itchiness, and congestion. At the cell and molecular level, allergens such as pollen attach to IgE antibodies leading to the release of mediators of inflammation such as histamine, leukotrienes, and interlukins.