Human cord blood is a critical source of cells used to treat blood disorders. However, this source contains low numbers of cells that make successful transplants more difficult. The bone marrow of adults contain blood-forming stem cells that are self-renewing, can grow well, and can become different types of mature blood cells. Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) are involved in the production of hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Studies have shown that osteoblasts release extracellular vesicles (EVs), small structures within cells that contain various molecules and factors for various cellular functions. The EVs from osteoblasts play a role in maintaining a source of HSPCs needed for hematopoiesis (blood cell formation).