The leading cause of death for U.S. citizens is cardiovascular disease, which affects nearly a third of the U.S. population. There is an active and dedicated search for effective therapies to address this serious medical issue. The use of immunotherapy approaches for a number of diseases and conditions is continuously gaining momentum. Included in this is the use of CD34+ stem cells from a patients’ own blood (autologously derived) to treat cardiovascular disease. CD34+ is derived from bone marrow and other tissue types. However, CD34+ stems cells are more widely known for their hematopoietic origin.
Nearly 7 million people in the U.S. (about 2% of the total U.S. population) suffer some level of stroke-related brain damage and related health problems. Studies in animals suggest that cell-based therapies can improve post-stroke outcomes. To determine the safety of cell-therapy approaches in humans, researchers from Stanford University conducted a clinical trial to study the safety of a procedure to transplant donor stem cells in the brains of patients with chronic stroke.
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a condition caused by blocked arteries leading to low blood flow to the legs, feet, and other extremities. This causes severe pain, skin sores, gangrene, and can also lead to death. Amputation is often needed due to a lack of effective treatment options for CLI. The poor outcomes for patients with CLI have stimulated research efforts to find effective treatments such as autologous cell therapies. A new approach to treatment that is being investigated involves using cells from bone marrow aspirate supplied by HemaCare (bone marrow collected with a needle and syringe).
Human cord blood is a critical source of cells used to treat blood disorders. However, this source contains low numbers of cells that make successful transplants more difficult. The bone marrow of adults contain blood-forming stem cells that are self-renewing, can grow well, and can become different types of mature blood cells. Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) are involved in the production of hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Studies have shown that osteoblasts release extracellular vesicles (EVs), small structures within cells that contain various molecules and factors for various cellular functions. The EVs from osteoblasts play a role in maintaining a source of HSPCs needed for hematopoiesis (blood cell formation).
One of the most life-threatening forms of stroke is intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This type of stroke is caused by bleeding that occurs within the brain tissue. Common causes of brain hemorrhage include brain tumors, brain trauma, and aneurysms. Effective treatment for patients suffering from intracerebral hemorrhage is lacking. The usefulness of various cell types to treat the effects of ICH continues to be studied. Bone marrow mononuclear cells are considered prime candidates for cell therapy for patients with ICH because they can be quickly collected and processed from bone marrow.