In chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell immunotherapy, T cells are obtained from a patient and genetically modified to express specific receptors (CARs) against tumor antigens. The best studied and successful CAR-T cells target the CD19 antigen on neoplastic B cells. However, this targeted approach gives quite variable results. The secretion by CD19 CAR-T cells of various cell signaling molecules varies between patients and individual CAR-T cells. The question then is how to measure the ability of CD19 CAR-T cells to release signals, after a specific antigenic challenge and correlate that to patient responses.
Personalized medicine is taking new and powerful forms in the field of immunotherapy. The technology behind making customized tumor-destroying cells, thought of not long ago as science-fiction, is now a reality. [1,2] Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cells, or CAR-T cells, are designer, precision built personal immunotherapeutic agents that target an individual’s tumor. The use of CAR-T cells is a means of using the body’s own immune system arsenal to attack cancer cells.
The ancient and well-known practice of fasting is simply the avoidance of food intake for a specific time period. This practice has religious and health-related basis. It is thought that fasting allows the system to reset, which can help prevent cancer cell survival. It has been shown over the years that fasting often has a beneficial anti-cancer effect.
For many years, cancer therapy has been tackled with a more or less universal approach. The drawback of this approach to therapy is the wide range of different responses to a given therapy. The concept of personalized medicine, tailoring treatment to a patient’s specific characteristics, has been envisioned and desired for many years. It is now being studied and implemented to increase successful responses to therapy, including cancer therapy.
White blood cells play key roles in the body’s defense against disease-causing agents. One type of white blood cell, granulocytes, plays an important role in inflammation. It is known that inflammation influences cancer development and spread (metastasis). Neutrophils, the most abundant of the granulocytes, respond to messages released by tumor cells and affect the tumor growth process.