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Scientists Grow Retinal Ganglion Cells from Stem Cells

Jan 27, 2016 1:00:04 PM / by Shweta posted in cellular reprogramming, CRISPR, gene editing, Innovation, research, stem cell transplantation, stem cells

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The gene editing tool CRISPR along with stem cells help scientists create retinal ganglion cells in the lab

Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells often leads to progressive and irreversible vision loss. These cells are the type of nerve cells located within the retina, which transmit visual signals from the eye to the brain. Retinal ganglion cells have limited intrinsic capacity to regenerate and cannot be replaced by new cells. Glaucoma and multiple sclerosis are the most common type of optic neuropathies that lead to vision loss and blindness due to death of retinal ganglion cells.

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New Stem Cell Discovery with iPSCs May Help to Diminish Graft Rejection

Sep 7, 2015 1:00:17 PM / by Shweta posted in cell therapy, cellular reprogramming, induced pluripotent stem cells, Innovation, regenerative medicine, research, Stem Cell Therapy, stem cells

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Scientists used humanized mice to demonstrate the differential immunogenicity of cells derived from autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been considered as one of the groundbreaking findings in the history of life science research. This innovation has changed the direction of stem cell research around the world and may represent an ideal cell source for future regenerative therapies. But the fact that iPSCs are derived from an individual’s own body does not eliminate the possibility of immune rejection completely. A research group at UC San Diego previously reported that abnormal gene expression may elicit the immune system to reject certain cells derived from iPSCs.

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Study Claims Breakthrough for Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

Jun 8, 2015 1:00:28 PM / by Shweta posted in cancer, cancer treatment, cellular reprogramming, Independent validation, Innovation, research

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Scientists reprogrammed human pancreatic cancer cells to quiescent acinar like cells

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a fatal malignancy and one of the most difficult human cancers to treat. Medical science has made great strides in the early diagnosis and treatment of many other type of cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. However, the prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains an elusive clinical challenge largely because of the difficulty of making an early diagnosis. Patients with pancreatic cancer typically develop very few symptoms in the early stage, which could easily mislead physicians. The lethal nature of this cancer makes it the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with a median survival of less than 6 months and a dismal 5-years survival rate of 3%–5%. So far, no curative treatments are available to treat advanced stages of this disease. Surgery offers only a minimal chance to cure pancreatic cancer; however, less than 20% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer are considered for surgical resection. Chemoradiotherapy and radiation have shown some success in reducing tumor growth and prolonging patients' life spans, but the beneficial effects of these treatments are limited in long run.

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Novel iPSC Platform to Study Host-Pathogen Interaction

Apr 29, 2015 1:00:10 PM / by Shweta posted in cellular reprogramming, disease-state cells, drug discovery, drug screening, induced pluripotent stem cells, Innovation, malaria, stem cells

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iPSC technology helps scientists model liver-stage malaria in a dish

Malaria is a parasitic disease which kills millions of lives worldwide. The life cycle of the parasite revolves between a mosquito vector and a human host. Malaria is transmitted when Anopheles mosquitoes bite a human being and release hundreds of sporozoites into the bloodstream of the host. After entering into the bloodstream, parasites migrate to the liver, where they can either remain dormant or initiate an asexual multiplication cycle to produce thousands of merozoites. The newly formed merozoites attack red blood cells and further initiate the asexual replication cycle. Some of the merozoites differentiate into male and female gametocytes, which are the only parasite form that can be transmitted from humans to the mosquito vector.

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Exciting Discovery Leads to Generation of New Class of Pluripotent Stem Cells

Mar 18, 2015 1:00:39 PM / by Shweta posted in cell therapy, cellular reprogramming, induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSCs, research, stem cells

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Researchers produced a new class of pluripotent stem cells using cellular reprogramming

The remarkable discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell technology by Japanese researcher Shinya Yamanaka has revolutionized the field of stem cell biology. Yamanaka and his group showed that somatic cells can be reprogrammed by transferring their nuclear material into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells, indicating that unfertilized eggs and ES cells contain factors that can confer totipotency or pluripotency to somatic cells [1]. This cutting-edge finding has since advanced stem cell research. The creation of patient-specific disease cell lines can help scientists model a disease in a petri dish for the study and possible treatment of degenerative disorders with autologous cells.

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