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Combination of Cells Improves Immunotherapy

Aug 27, 2018 10:11:00 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in immunotherapy, cytotoxic T cells, T cells, cancer treatment

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A recent study looked at how checkpoint inhibitors may impact the success of immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

Immune homeostasis is crucial for human and animal survival. The immune system is equipped with cells and factors that maintain a critical balance of signals that prevent immune dysfunction. Pathways that ensure this balance are immune checkpoints, and these are essential for the self-tolerance that prevents autoimmunity. Immune checkpoint proteins modulate T-cell responses to self-proteins and antigens, including tumor antigens. The proteins are expressed on the surface of cancer and cytotoxic T cells, and cancer cells use these to evade attack by T cells.

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Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1-derived peptide as target for the design of cytotoxic T cell-based immunotherapy

Nov 27, 2017 8:00:30 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in cytotoxic T cells

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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in adults. It is due to the growth of neoplastic B cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues. People with relapsed/refractory high-risk CLL do not respond to conventional treatments. A possible valuable strategy to design T-cell−based treatment involves the receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1). ROR1 mRNA is found to be highly expressed in CLL cells; however, it is not found to be expressed in other bone marrow–derived cells, including blood cells, or normal adult non-hematopoietic cells. Higher expression of ROR1 in CLL cells was correlated with lower CLL survival. Therefore, ROR1 may play a key role in the progression of CLL.

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Characterization of T Cell Subsets in Adult Minimal Change Disease

Nov 22, 2017 8:00:42 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in cytotoxic T cells, T cells

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Minimal change disease (MCD) is a kidney disease characterized by pathology in the glomeruli. The disease has its name because changes associated with it can only be seen via electron microscopy. The effects on the glomeruli lead to its increase in permeability and subsequent severe loss of proteins in the urine. Immunological changes in the kidney tissue are thought to promote the development of MCD. Research studies have suggested that abnormalities in Foxp3 T regulatory (Treg) cells, which control immune homeostasis, are involved in MCD pathogenesis.

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Structural Differences Associated with the Cytotoxic T-cell Response to an Immunodominant Epitope of the Influenza A Virus

Nov 6, 2017 1:23:01 PM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in cytotoxic T cells

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The influenza A virus (IAV) is the cause of yearly seasonal flu epidemics and is eliminated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Recognition of infected cells is mediated by T cell receptors composed of two (a and b) glycoprotein chains. These receptors bind viral peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules on infected cells. Cytotoxic T cell receptors that recognize GILGFVFTL (GIL), the immunodominant epitope of IAV, are produced in people who express the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2.

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Combination of Cytotoxic T cells with Cytarabine Synergistically Induces Leukemia cell Apoptosis by Inhibition of Bcl-2 Expression

Oct 5, 2017 2:37:03 PM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in cytotoxic T cells

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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer originating from cells of the bone marrow and remains difficult to cure due to relapses. There have been significant advances in the development of immunotherapeutic approaches to various types of cancer. Immunotherapy stimulates the patient’s immune system to destroy cancer cells without the harmful adverse effects seen with conventional chemotherapy.

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