Minimal change disease (MCD) is a kidney disease characterized by pathology in the glomeruli. The disease has its name because changes associated with it can only be seen via electron microscopy. The effects on the glomeruli lead to its increase in permeability and subsequent severe loss of proteins in the urine. Immunological changes in the kidney tissue are thought to promote the development of MCD. Research studies have suggested that abnormalities in Foxp3 T regulatory (Treg) cells, which control immune homeostasis, are involved in MCD pathogenesis.
Dendritic cells are powerful antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. Subsets of dendritic cells are distinguished by distinct cell surface markers. These markers are responsible for the differences in dendritic cell subset functions. Studies show that specific types of dendritic cells are associated with the development of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. The specific dendritic cell associated with the cytotoxic T cell response remains unknown. Therefore, research was conducted that examined human skin dendritic cell populations.
The influenza A virus (IAV) is the cause of yearly seasonal flu epidemics and is eliminated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Recognition of infected cells is mediated by T cell receptors composed of two (a and b) glycoprotein chains. These receptors bind viral peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules on infected cells. Cytotoxic T cell receptors that recognize GILGFVFTL (GIL), the immunodominant epitope of IAV, are produced in people who express the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer originating from cells of the bone marrow and remains difficult to cure due to relapses. There have been significant advances in the development of immunotherapeutic approaches to various types of cancer. Immunotherapy stimulates the patient’s immune system to destroy cancer cells without the harmful adverse effects seen with conventional chemotherapy.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), is a debilitating condition with unknown etiology that is characterized by excessive and persistent fatigue with physical or mental exertion, often accompanied by flu-like symptoms, and not relieved by rest. Previous clinical studies suggest that infections caused by intracellular pathogens, such as Epstein-Barr virus, may elicit ME/CFS. Therefore, predisposition to the development of ME/CFS may be associated with an impairment of the immune system.