Researchers find a microRNA that can alter macrophages from pathogenic M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 and protects against atherosclerosis.
We all know someone who has gone through a coronary artery bypass graft or, as commonly known, a bypass surgery. It starts with too much fat and cholesterol accumulating in and narrowing the arteries and ends with a relatively complicated surgical procedure where one or more arteries in the heart get replaced by another coming from the patient’s chest or leg. While the mortality rate due to the procedure is only at 2-4%, there are multiple risks involved with the surgery, and these risks increase further with additional complications, such as diabetes, obesity, or poor general health. It is estimated that in the U.S. more than 500,000 patients undergo a coronary bypass surgery with a rough cost of 30 billion dollars each year1.