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Palmitate-Induced Suppression of IGF binding protein-3 Leads to Liver Inflammation

Feb 6, 2017 8:16:08 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in Inflammation, Macrophages, Monocytes, stem cell research, Basic Research

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Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are hormones resembling insulin and are important for normal cell growth and division. IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) regulate IGF action leading to changes in their effects in the body. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is the most abundant of the IGFBPs and is made primarily in kupffer cells (specialized liver macrophages).

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Dual Role of IL-2R Protein in the Immune System: Fights Both Inflammation and Cancer

Dec 7, 2016 12:00:15 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in Cancer, Cytotoxic T Cells, Inflammation, Helper T Cells, Basic Research

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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are immune cells that function to regulate the immune system in order to prevent autoimmune disease. They do this by sustaining immune tolerance to the body’s own cells and antigens. Tregs are known to have interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R), and their functions depend on interleukin 2 (IL-2), a cytokine that is released by T helper cells and act on cytotoxic T cells.

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Inducing Fas Ligand in Dendritic Cells Gives Them an Edge Against Inflammatory Bowl Disease

Jul 11, 2016 1:00:32 PM / by Dalia Gaddis posted in crohn's disease, Inflammation, T Cells, therapy, Basic Research

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Researchers find that dendritic cells transduced with Fas Ligand are effective in treating colon inflammation.

Dendritic cells are constantly sampling the lumen of the intestines for harmful bacterial. Once they find a threat, they migrate to the neighboring lymph nodes to activate T cells. Since our intestines contain hundreds of millions of bacterial cells, dendritic cells have developed to ignore the commensal bacteria that would not harm us. This “ignorance” or tolerance has proved essential for intestinal health. Breakdown of this tolerance results in inflammatory bowel diseases or IBD. We have previously written about how defective dendritic cells are to blame for the initiation of IBD.

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Myeloid Macrophages Implicated in Stress-Induced Memory Loss

Jun 22, 2016 1:00:28 PM / by Steffen Porwollik posted in Bone Marrow, Inflammation, Macrophages

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A new study finds that chronic stress leads to recruitment of myeloid macrophages to the hippocampus, weakening the brain’s capacity for spatial memory. This finding may have broad implications for sufferers of stress-induced disorders.

Stress is part of our lives. Whether it occurs over finishing a term paper five milliseconds before the deadline, navigating the complicated social undercurrents in the office, juggling your teenaged offspring’s wishes against the budgetary restrictions of your existence, or getting delayed on the freeway on your way to an interview / concert / meeting / [insert absolutely crucial event here] – we all experience stress to varying degrees. Our bodies are equipped to handle stress, by pumping more oxygen to the brain, making us more alert and responsive.

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Another Strike Against Smoking: Nicotine Inhibits the Function of Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages

May 4, 2016 1:00:27 PM / by Dalia Gaddis posted in Bone Marrow, Inflammation, Macrophages, Stem Cells

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Researchers find that bone marrow derived macrophages lose their inflammatory phenotype when exposed to nicotine.

If someone you know needs extra motivation to quit smoking, here is one you can give them. Nicotine suppresses their immune system. Its effect on macrophages prevents them from responding adequately to inflammation, and thus leaves individuals more prone to infections and cancers. 

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