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NF-kB Activation by CD40 Is Increased in B Cells of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Possible Target of Immunotherapy

Feb 3, 2017 11:26:40 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in Multiple Sclerosis, PBMCs, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell, stem cell research

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An aspect of immunity involves the function of B lymphocytes (or B cells) that secrete antibodies. A protein expressed on B cells and other immune cells (CD40) is crucial for normal B cell action. CD40 interacts with a protein (CD40L) present on T cells that also contributes to B cell stimulation. This CD40-CD40L interaction is important for normal immune function. However, exaggerated B-cell responses to CD40 occur in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. It has been shown that B cells from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are stimulated by CD40 to multiply significantly more than in healthy patients.

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JC Virus Gains Disease-Causing Advantage by DNA Interchange with Epstein-Barr Virus

Nov 23, 2016 12:00:18 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in CD 19 B cells, CD19, Multiple Sclerosis, research, The Epstein Barr virus, The John Cunningham Virus

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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common virus that is found all over the world and can cause mononucleosis and other diseases in people with compromised immune systems. The John Cunningham virus (JC virus) is another common virus with up to 90% of adults in the U.S carrying the virus. However, most do not have any symptoms or illnesses with the virus, but those with suppressed immune systems (people with AIDS or taking immunosuppressive medications) can develop illnesses due to the JC virus.

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HemaCare's Peripheral Blood Helps Solve a Multiple Sclerosis Riddle

Feb 22, 2016 1:00:04 PM / by Maria posted in B cell depletion therapy, B cells, Multiple Sclerosis, research, T cells, Th17 cells

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Depleting B cells improves outcomes for multiple sclerosis patients, but what is the underlying biology? Peripheral blood from HemaCare helped provide answers.

 

Multiple sclerosis is a disease in which the protective myelin coat of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord become damaged. Consequently, any function related to the central nervous system can be adversely affected, but the most common symptoms are severe fatigue, visual problems, altered sensitivity, and reduced mobility. The root cause of multiple sclerosis is still unknown, but the research community has learned that it is an abnormal immune-mediated response that attacks the myelin coating.

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An Old Player With a New Role: Macrophages Link the Immune and Sympathetic Nervous Systems to Prevent Multiple Sclerosis Progression

Feb 1, 2016 1:00:04 PM / by Dalia Gaddis posted in autoimmune disease, Central nervous system, Multiple Sclerosis, Nor-epinephrine, Nr4a1, research

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Researchers find that Nr4a1 expression in macrophages link the sympathetic and immune systems and limit inflammation during multiple sclerosis.

It is becoming more apparent every day that the different systems of the human body influence each other substantially more than what was previously thought. New research provides evidence that this is the case with the immune and sympathetic nervous systems. The linking factor is macrophages and a transcription factor they express, Nr4a1, and the result is affecting the outcome of multiple sclerosis.

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How Does Glatiramer Acetate Affect B Cells in Multiple Sclerosis?

Nov 17, 2014 1:00:36 PM / by Daisy posted in CD19, Copaxone, copolymer, glatiramer acetate, Independent validation, MS, Multiple Sclerosis, myelin basic protein

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Although glatiramer acetate has been around for about 20 years, we still do not have the full picture of its mode of action, especially on B cells.

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