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T Cells Can Help Reduce Inflammation in Autoimmune Conditions

May 29, 2018 10:05:00 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in Regulatory T Cells, T Cells

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New research shows bystander cell accumulation may play an active role in countering autoimmune diseases and curbing inflammation.

Autoimmune diseases are those in which the immune system attacks the body’s own cells leading to inflammation and damage of organs and tissues. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an example of an autoimmune disease caused by destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic cells (islet beta cells) by the immune system. Cytotoxic T cells that recognize islet beta cell antigens are the main immune cells responsible for the changes seen in T1D, but cytotoxic T cells that do not recognize these antigens are also found to infiltrate the pancreatic tissue. These cells have been designated bystander cells and have been thought to passively contribute to autoimmune-related tissue damage.

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One Receptor Antigen Directs Development of Two T-Cell Types

Nov 4, 2016 11:05:02 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in Cytotoxic T Cells, Regulatory T Cells, T Cells

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T-cell receptors (TCRs) are membrane proteins involved in T-cell activation in the presence of an antigen (invading organism or molecule). Each T cell (cytotoxic T cells, T regulatory cells, etc.) has a unique TCR that recognizes a specific antigen. Triggering TCRs result in a number of events in the immune response including the production of cytokines (cell signals), T-cell development, gaining of specific T cells functions, and more.

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Factor Expressed on Regulatory T Cells Keeps Autoimmunity in Check

Nov 2, 2016 12:42:11 PM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in Autoimmune Disorders, Cytotoxic T Cells, Regulatory T Cells

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Autoimmune disorders develop when the body’s immune system does not distinguish between the body’s own cells and antigens. The destruction by the immune system of normal tissues is the basis of autoimmune diseases. The search for effective treatments or cures for autoimmune disorders depends on understanding the factors involved in immune cell function.

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Cord Blood Regulatory T cells Provide New Hope for Transplant Patients

Jul 20, 2016 1:00:08 PM / by Dalia Gaddis posted in Cord Blood, Regulatory T Cells

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A clinical trial shows that cord blood regulatory T cells help reduce GVHD in high-risk blood malignancies.

One of the worst adverse effects of bone marrow or stem cell transplant is graft versus host disease. Side effects can range from rashes to a complete destruction of vital organs such as kidneys or liver. Thanks to regulatory T cells from cord blood, transplant patients may have a better therapy option.

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An Alternative to Bypass Surgery: a Gene Silencer that Induces Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages and Prevents Atherosclerosis.

Jan 25, 2016 1:00:40 PM / by Dalia Gaddis posted in Cardiovascular Disease, Macrophages, Regulatory T Cells, Basic Research

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Researchers find a microRNA that can alter macrophages from pathogenic M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 and protects against atherosclerosis.

We all know someone who has gone through a coronary artery bypass graft or, as commonly known, a bypass surgery. It starts with too much fat and cholesterol accumulating in and narrowing the arteries and ends with a relatively complicated surgical procedure where one or more arteries in the heart get replaced by another coming from the patient’s chest or leg. While the mortality rate due to the procedure is only at 2-4%, there are multiple risks involved with the surgery, and these risks increase further with additional complications, such as diabetes, obesity, or poor general health. It is estimated that in the U.S. more than 500,000 patients undergo a coronary bypass surgery with a rough cost of 30 billion dollars each year1.

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