Human Adult Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet-Rich Plasma Have Similar Effects on Skin Healing Processes

Regrowth and healing of skin after severe traumas such as burns and other extensive skin damage are significant medical challenges and depend on complex skin regeneration mechanisms. Skin and other tissue regeneration processes start with platelet degranulation and clotting that are associated with the release of a number of factors including clotting factors and cytokines. Skin tissue regeneration also relies on the action of growth factors. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is beneficial for tissue regeneration processes because platelets promote the secretion of growth factors that are essential in wound healing.


Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD4+ Cytotoxic T Cells Have Lower Liver Tumor Killing Capacity Than CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cells

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma is a common, but aggressive liver cancer with a low survival rate. Given the immunogenicity of HBV and tumor cells, immunotherapies based on T-cell cytotoxicity may be viable treatment approaches to hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies were conducted to characterize the cytotoxic T-cell (CD4+ and CD8+) responses involved in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. 


World Blood Donor Day: Celebrating the Life-Giving Gift

Many people have at some point thought of, or actually donated their blood for medical use by those most in need. Most people are familiar with the use of donated blood in emergency situations to replace trauma-related blood loss. However, donated blood has many uses including for medical research and planned therapies. Research using donated blood supports crucial development of immunotherapies for different types of cancer, auto-immune diseases, rare diseases and conditions, and more.


Highly Conserved Influenza A Peptides Show Promise as T Cell Reactive Vaccine Candidates

Influenza A is responsible for flu epidemics worldwide. This virus changes constantly making effective vaccine design very challenging. Currently, vaccines must be redesigned to account for the changes in the virus strains. However, there are influenza viral peptides that are conserved across different strains. These peptides may serve as the basis for the development of vaccines effective against different strains.


Exocytosis is Equally Impaired in Chediak–Higashi Syndrome Natural Killer and Cytotoxic T Cells Despite Differences in Granule Morphology

Chediak–Higashi syndrome is caused by a genetic mutation resulting in enlargement of lysosomes (cell organelles containing digestive enzymes). People with Chediak–Higashi syndrome have albinism of the eyes and skin and can develop a life-threatening overactive inflammatory syndrome. The cytotoxic function of natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T cells is impaired in patients with Chediak–Higashi syndrome. Given the devastating nature of the inflammatory syndrome that can develop, there is a clinical benefit and need for the ability to predict the clinical outcome of patients with Chediak–Higashi syndrome.


CD34 Stem Cell−Derived Natural Killer Cells Are Better for Immunotherapy than Peripheral or Cord Blood Natural Killer Cells

Natural killer (NK) cells are immune cells that can be used as a form of immunotherapy and are particularly effective in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). NK cells can be obtained from peripheral or cord blood, but with low yields. This limits their use for patients that need multiple treatments. They also have a short survival time and do not proliferate or remain viable after injection into patients. The availability of NK cells for therapy can be enhanced by stimulating their production from hematopoietic (CD 34+) stem cells.


Anti-Tumor Immunity Can Be Induced by Dendritic Cells Fused with Tumor-derived Endothelial Cells

Dendritic cells are powerful antigen-presenting cells that are crucial for immune responses including those against tumor cells. These cells process and present invading and disease-causing cells and molecules to T cells. When dendritic cells fuse with tumor antigens, T cells are activated to induce anti-tumor immunity.


B Cells from Multiple Sclerosis Patients Promote T Helper Cell Responses to Neuro-antigens

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that may develop with the help of B cells. One piece of evidence that suggests this is the ability of B cell depletion therapy to reduce MS-related CNS inflammation. Since T helper cells (especially Th17) are believed to mediate MS development, studies that determine how B cells influence T helper cells are important in understanding MS pathogenesis.


Comparisons between Primary NK, Engineered NK-92, and Jurkat T Cells Demonstrate Their Importance in Antibody Drug Development

Antibody-based drugs are developed as an immunotherapeutic approach to treat different types of cancer. An important step in the antibody drug–development process is the use of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays due to this mechanism of action for most antibody drugs. These assays require the use of effector cells, and those used most often are natural killer (NK) cells obtained from human donors and engineered cells (NK-92 and Jurkate T cells).


Humanized Mice Show Promise for the Study of Xenogeneic Graft-Versus-Host Reactions

Research into the prevention or amelioration of graft-versus-host disease is a priority in the transplantation arena. The use of mouse models help in understanding the mechanisms and efficacy of proposed approaches to this issue. For example, the application of regulatory T cells is one area of investigation using mouse models treated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, the current mouse models limit the interpretation for its potential use in humans because the immune reactions observed are only to the mouse cells.