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Oxford's COVID-19 Vaccine Produces a Strong Positive Immune Response in Early Results

Sep 8, 2020 10:06:00 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in T Cells, Vaccine Research

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The University of Oxford conducted clinical trials on a possible vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 and the results produce a positive immune response. 

As the race for a COVID (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine forges ahead across the globe, some scientists are obtaining clinical trial results that suggest progress toward an effective vaccine. Results of clinical trials conducted by scientists at the University of Oxford suggest that their newly developed vaccine elicits expected immune responses with an acceptable safety profile. Two immunity responses, antibody production, and T cell response to infected cells were assessed in the clinical trial participants.

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T Cells Could Play a Protective Role Against COVID-19

Sep 1, 2020 10:02:00 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in T Cells, Vaccine Research

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New studies have found that people who have tested negative for COVID-19 antibodies, developed T cells instead in a response to their COVID-19 infections. 

When the body is infected with a pathogen such as a virus, it mounts a protective response through immune cells and the production of pathogen-specific antibodies. The antibodies remove the viruses before they can infect cells. Cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells via inflammatory mediators to prevent the function of the invading organism. In the case of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) clinical studies, patients have been found to recover from the viral infection without the development of antibodies to the virus. However, they did develop a T-cell response to COVID-19. Therefore, it is believed that people who are asymptomatic or have a mild illness can remove the virus via T cells.

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Discussing Therapeutic Options for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Mar 24, 2020 10:04:00 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in T Cells, Vaccine Research, Immunotherapy (Immunology)

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While the world waits for a coronavirus vaccine, scientists are looking to viral and cell therapy treatments for a solution.

Since China began reporting COVID-19 cases to the World Health Organization (WHO), the novel virus has since spread globally. With the declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic, announcements about efforts to develop a coronavirus vaccine are ongoing and constant.

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NK Cells May Form Adaptive Memories

Sep 10, 2019 10:10:00 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in NK Cells, Vaccine Research, Humanized Mice

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A new study shows that NK cells may be able to form adaptive memory and demonstrate specific antigen memory.

Innate immunity has long been considered the nonspecific first line of defense against an invading microorganism, while adaptive (or acquired) immunity is an antigen-specific immune response characterized by a memory that allows protection against a repeat exposure. Examples of cells of the innate immune response include natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells. T and B lymphocytes are cells of the adaptive immune system.

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Research on Universal Cancer Vaccine

Sep 17, 2018 10:13:00 AM / by Stacy Matthews Branch, DVM, PhD posted in Cancer, T Cells, Vaccine Research, Immunotherapy (Immunology)

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Researchers are hoping to develop a cancer vaccine to improve a patient’s immune system so they can destroy the cancer cells.

The objective of therapeutic cancer vaccines is to support and enhance a patient’s immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells while sparing surrounding normal cells. The first therapeutic immune cell–based cancer vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is Sipuleucel-T. Administration of this vaccine in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer lead to an increase in overall survival. Boosting T-cell responses against antigens that cause a number of diseases has been approached by autologous transfer of dendritic cells. A pilot study was conducted using dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate from patients with ovarian cancer. Vaccination of the patients stimulated T-cell responses to the tumor antigen led to an increase in patient survival. 

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